Aussie Do's and Don'ts


There is a proverb that says, “When in Rome, be Roman”.

While it's very easy to travel down-under, we'd similarly say, "When in Australia, be Aussie".

Australia probably has the most casual cultural ethics. People here are more chilled out ... they'll call you by your first name, and wear slippers and call them thongs.

So, to get more comfortable with the locals and the environment, it's probably best to adapt or be aware of some Do's & Don'ts. Some are for your safety, some may save you unnecessary mis-understanding. 

Here we’ve noted down some of the basic Aussie do’s and don’ts to better help enjoy your trip down-under.

Aussie Do’s:

·         Do carry a list of emergency phone numbers.

·         Do make sure to wear waterproof sunscreen lotion when outdoors.

·         Do keep valuables in the safe deposit of your hotel room.

·         Do change currency with a recognized money changer.

·         Do use seat belts while driving in Australia, it's mandatory for everyone.               (BTW, if cycling, you must also wear a helmet).

·         Do sit in the front with the taxi driver. While it's customary for men, women traveling alone can sit in the back passenger seat.

·         Do wear casual clothing if not going to a business function. 

·         Do greet with a smile and a handshake. It's customary to shake hands at the beginning and end of a meeting.

·         Do keep eye contact when speaking, and maintain personal space.

·         Do get some knowledge of major sports and how the local team is getting on.  Sport is supreme in Australia.

·         Do offer to buy the first round of drinks at the pub. This will also mean that you won’t have to get up for the next couple of rounds.

·         Do take warning signs seriously for your own safety.

·         Do be careful when driving at night in less populated areas as wildlife may abound.

·         Do remember that tipping is not mandatory in Australia. You won’t get terrible service or be frowned upon if you don’t leave a tip. However, you may tip for exceptional service received ... but again it’s not compulsory.

·         Do remember to hold on to your rubbish until you find a bin. You may be reported if seen tossing rubbish on the streets ... and can be fined up to $600.

Aussie Don’ts:

·         Do not forget to carry photocopies of essential documents ... and leave copies back home.

·         Do not bring prohibited items with you, such as meat, packaged food, dairy products or fresh fruits and vegetables.

·         Do not eat, drink or smoke on public transport, or in public buildings.

·         Do not swim outside the red and yellow flags at beaches for your safety. 

·         Do not hire from unlicensed operators.

·         Do not be surprised by what's worn (or not) on beaches. 

·         Do not be offended being addressed by your first name. In Australia first names are used both in personal greetings and business correspondence. Professional titles are not prominent and are sometimes dismissed as pretentious

[Related Topic : Top 5 Fine Dining Restaurants Of Australia]

·         Do not visit unannounced. Unexpected visits are not part of Australian culture.

·         Do not be surprised if you're asked to bring your own beer and meat when invited to a barbeque. BBQ is a big part of Australian culture.

·         Don’t go off the track while traveling in Australia. While it’s always better to travel with a local guide, if traveling alone don’t experiment with directions. 

Great Fishing Adventures of Australia : Part II


The remaining part of the collection of independent fishing operators offering unforgettable experiences in Australia’s most inspiring and extraordinary locations;


Ultimate Adventures Barramundi Fishing offers fully guided sport fishing itineraries on the Lower Ord River in the spectacularly beautiful Kimberley region of Western Australia. Visitors to this area can experience the thrill of catching wild barramundi on one of Australia’s famous and unique outback river systems where large crocodiles, myriad bird-life and tropical wildlife coexist.

Ultimate Adventures offers small group, personalized fishing trips, catering for the novice through to experienced anglers.

Accommodation is the bush-style Hairy Dog’s Fishing Camp, near the historic bend of the Lower Ord River and Carlton Crossing, with river views, verandah dining and plenty of Kimberley hospitality.


Domestic Airport: Kununurra, Western Australia
International Airport/s: Darwin, Northern Territory;  or, Perth, Western Australia

Time to Lodge: 1 hour 4WD from Kununurra
Peak Season: Late March to early November


The Mackerel Islands are an archipelago of 10 beautiful islands surrounded by pristine waters in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, just 15 miles off the coast of Onslow. Just two out of the ten islands welcome guests - Thevenard and Direction Islands – offering a truly unique fishing adventure with beachfront accommodation in close proximity to world-class fishing. The Mackerel Islands are also the Pilbara’s fishiest waters and anglers happily recount the number of times they reeled in a thumping great red emperor, giant trevally or sailfish. Keen anglers have the choice of beach, boat and fly fishing as well as fishing charters, where an experienced skipper will reveal favorite fishing spots. These waters attract visitors from all over the world to test their skills against nature’s finest.


Domestic Airport: Onslow, Western Australia
International Airport: Perth, Western Australia
Time to Lodge/Vessel: 45 min ferry transfer from Onslow
Peak Season: Autumn/Winter (March - November)


Heralded as one of the best fishing destinations in Australia, visitors to the remote Cobourg Peninsula can expect to experience some of Australia’s best blue water and barramundi fishing, without vying for space. The Aboriginal lands of the Cobourg Peninsula are a perfect example of an environment that has never felt the effects of human interference. Mud crabs can still be speared in the crystal-clear water, oysters can be shucked from nearly every exposed rock and fishing here is in a league of its own. Accommodation at Cobourg Coastal Camp is in eight safari-style tents on raised decking. Dining is in a large, undercover area with the adjacent lounge and library the perfect place to relax after a day out at sea.


Domestic Airport: Smith Point Airstrip
International Airport: Darwin, Northern Territory
Time to Lodge/Vessel: 1 minute
Peak Season: April, May, October, November


Dhipirri Barra and Sportfishing Lodge, located on an exclusive stretch of Australia’s remote Arnhem Land coastline, provides personalised safaris for fishing enthusiasts from around the world. Just a short scenic flight from Darwin or Gove, Dhipirri is located on pristine coastline between two tidal rivers – the Glyde and Woolen- where local traditional owners have given their approval to access these amazing fishing locations. Barramundi or “barra” as it’s locally known, is the specialty here and a great fighting fish. Off shore the targets are pelagics and reef fish caught on the hundreds of bommies in the area. Back at the lodge, guests are well looked after in air-conditioned, well-appointed cabins located next to a central lodge, where sundowners are enjoyed overlooking the ocean before an outstanding dinner of freshly caught fish or mud crabs.


Domestic Airport: Gove
International Airport: Darwin, Northern Territory
Time to Lodge: Gove flight 40 mins/Darwin 2 hours
Peak Season: Dhipirri Barra operates from March - mid December


Groote Eylandt Sports Fishing offers a range of fishing charters, for novices through to experienced anglers. Groote Eylandt – Dutch for ‘large island’ - and its sprawling archipelago encompasses some 40 smaller islands. It is around 400 miles east of Darwin (a 1.5 hour flight) in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The Warnindilyakwa people are the traditional owners of the region. On a typical three-day safari adventure, guests will experience reef, blue water and estuary fishing with hard-hitting tropical species from marlin and sailfish to the iconic barramundi. Diverse marine habitats ranging from tidal coastal creeks and sandy islands, through to 150 foot blue water trenches, mean anglers get to experience world-renowned fishing in one spot.


Domestic Airport: Alyangula, Groote Island, Northern Territory
International Airport: Darwin, Northern Territory
Time to Lodge: 1.5 hour flight from Darwin Peak Season:
Bluewater - September to December
Estuaries - September to April
Reef - all year


Tiwi Islands Adventures operate remote fishing lodges on the Tiwi Islands, a scenic 30-minute flight from Darwin. Known for its tropical climate, small and friendly indigenous population and great fishing, the Tiwi Islands is a remote area, consisting of coastal wetlands, mangrove lined river and creek systems, bays and coastal reefs all abundant with marine life. Fishing tours are run from two locations: Melville Island Lodge for up to 20 guests; and the ultra-remote Johnson River Camp in the upper reaches of the river, for up to nine guests. 

The variety of waters and accommodation allow for tours ranging from two through to six days.


Domestic Airport: Tiwi Islands/Snake Bay
International Airport: Darwin, Northern Territory
Time to Lodge: 5 minutes/vehicle
Peak Season: March - June and September - December


Nomad Sportfishing Adventures has provided pioneering sportfishing adventures to some of the most remote waters of Australia for over 15 years. Their professional guides specialize in lure casting, jigging, trolling and fly fishing for giant trevally and dogtooth tuna, plus a diverse range of pelagic and tropical reef species. The 80-foot mother-ship Odyssey and fleet of 18 to 25 foot center consoles have been purpose-built to fish the most remote areas of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea – the world’s largest and most pristine tropical coral reef system. After a day on the water, Odyssey provides a welcome return, offering guests chilled keg beer on tap and a three-course meal prepared by the on-board chef.


Domestic Airport: Cairns, Queensland
International Airport: Cairns, Queensland
Time to Lodge / Vessel: 1-4 hours (transfer times vary depending on the reef chosen)
Peak Season: February to December


The following operators are specialists in providing knowledge and tackle solutions specifically suited to their location and target species. 

Experiences on offer range from single day tours in Victoria's Port Phillip Bay, heli-fishing in the Northern Territory, or a two to seven day expedition through the Great Barrier Reef on Queensland’s coast, to name a few. For those venturing to the West Coast, specialist fly fishing guides will have you sight casting throughout the famous Ningaloo Reef, or chasing mighty marlin on an off-shore game boat.

Bay Fish N Trips – Mornington, Victoria
Fly Fishing Frontiers – Exmouth, Western Australia
Helifish – Darwin, Northern Territory, Cairns, Townsville and Horn Island, Queensland
Hervey Bay Fly & Sportfishing – Hervey Bay, Queensland
Mahi Mahi Coral Bay – Coral Bay, Western Australia
Outback Floatplane Adventures – Darwin, Northern Territory
Renegade Fishing Charters – Whitsunday’s, Queensland
True Blue Bones – Exmouth, Western Australia
Elizabeth EII Luxury Liveaboard Charters – Mackay, Queensland

Of course, there’s so much more to building lasting fishing memories than simply catching fish … even big ones! In the end, it’s as much about context and experience, and you’ll find those ingredients here in healthy servings.

Eye-popping scenery, exotic wildlife and colorful, down-to-earth local characters are all integral parts of the bigger picture. Better yet, because Australia’s situated Down Under, in the southern hemisphere, our seasons are reversed. While North America, is seized in winter’s icy grip, Australia is enjoying long, languorous days bathed in glorious summer sunshine … so come on down and wet a line!

The water’s fine, the fish are biting and the locals are definitely friendly. 


Courtesy : Great Fishing Adventures of Australia, Tourism Australia

Great Fishing Adventures of Australia : Part I

credit: Peter Morse ; Tourism Australia

credit: Peter Morse ; Tourism Australia

Any way you look at it, Australia is an angler’s paradise. A massive island with a sparse population, Australia’s coastline stretches 35,000 miles and is lapped by warm, clean, lightly-fished seas.

Not surprisingly, the richness and diversity of Australia’s fish life is nothing short of mind-boggling, with nearly 4,000 marine species (and still counting!) … and many of these fish are found nowhere else on earth. Included in the catalog of fishing riches are such glittering prizes as high-flying, chrome-silver barramundi, massive Murray cod with mouths the size of buckets, the world’s greatest seasonal concentration of huge Black Marlin, record-breaking Giant Trevally, succulent snapper, lip-smacking whiting and some of the finest trout fishing to be found anywhere south of the equator … and that’s just for starters!

Abundance, variety and diversity are the core characteristics of Australian fishing. Casting a line here is a giant lucky dip, and some of Australia's tropical destinations have been known to yield well in excess of 50 species per angler in less than a week of fishing.

Not that you need to travel to the more remote and far flung corners of our island continent to experience fishing bliss: there are a multitude of wonderful day-trip opportunities right on the doorsteps of our major cities. These allow you to mix the cosmopolitan pleasures of fine dining, world-class entertainment and cultural immersion with bent rods and screaming reels … Truly the best of all worlds!

Here's our first installment of fabulous independent fishing operators offering simply unforgettable experiences in some of Australia’s most inspiring and extraordinary locations;


The ultimate in blue water luxury sport fishing on the magnificent Great Barrier Reef, Far North Sports Fishing offers worldclass fishing, on-board accommodation and expert guides. With a bespoke charter from Port Douglas or Lizard Island, guests can board the 40-foot Black Magic game boat or the 70-foot mothership Martini to explore the blue waters of the Reef. Guests can fish the outer and remote reef systems in the northern reaches of the Barrier Reef, as well as the continental shelf and the iconic fishing locations of Linden Bank and Opal Ridge. Five star accommodation and dining is aboard either the Blue Martini or the luxurious 105-foot Motor Yacht Flying Fish, both catering for up to eight guests year round. There is also plenty to do for non-fishing partners who can enjoy snorkeling or scuba diving trips at world-renowned sites on the Barrier Reef.


Domestic & International Airport : Cairns, Queensland
Time to Lodge/Vessel: Depart from Lizard Island or Port Douglas, both 60 mins from Cairns
Peak Season: Year round


Nestled in the World Heritage-listed wilderness of Northern Tasmania, Driftwater is a boutique fly fishing lodge offering visitors access to the region’s rivers, streams and clear mountain lakes, all of which are packed with wild brown trout. There’s a range of fly fishing experiences
available from wading the lowland rivers, drifting in handcrafted wooden boats, targeting mayfly feeders or early morning tailing trout, or polaroiding the shores of the Highland Lakes. Every fly fishing ability is catered for with expert fly fishing tuition on hand if required, plus female guides to encourage more women to get into the sport. Accommodation is in a beautifully renovated 100-year-old homestead in a rural setting, overlooking the Meander Valley and surrounded by extensive gardens.


Domestic Airport: Launceston, Tasmania
International Airport: Melbourne, Victoria
Time to Lodge/Vessel: 2 hours’ drive to lodge/2 minutes to vessel
Peak Season: August - April


RiverFly 1864 is an award-winning family-owned business that specializes in dry fly sight fishing for wild brown trout in rivers, lakes and tarns. They offer a diverse range of fly-fishing adventures for beginners to advanced anglers, taking visitors to those lesser-known waters with the largest private access across Tasmania. Working with some of the best local Tasmanian guides in the country with decades of experience across the wild trout fishery, tours range from river-based excursions to multi-day wilderness campouts in the Western Lakes, a huge area of lakes and tarns in the Central Highlands  of Tasmania. As Tasmania’s only fly-fishing outfitter, Riverfly can also provide all the necessary gear including handcrafted  premium flies.


Domestic Airport: Launceston, Tasmania
International Airport: Melbourne, Victoria
Time to Lodge/Vessel: 15 minutes from Launceston
Peak Season: October – April (rivers) November – March (wilderness sight fishing)


Thousand Lakes Lodge is a place like no other - a boutique fly fishing lodge in Tasmania’s remote central plateau, offering some of the best trout fishing on its doorstep. East of the Walls of Jerusalem National Park, the central plateau area has been a famous trout fishery for over 100 years. Known as the land of a thousand lakes, it has many alpine tarns formed by glacial action some 8,000 - 20,000 years ago. A former training camp used by Antarctic expeditioners, Thousand Lakes Lodge has been transformed into boutique accommodation offering nine guest rooms, open-plan dining and lounge room and a slow-combustion fireplace which guests can relax around after a day’s fishing.

Domestic Airport: Launceston, Tasmania
International Airport: Melbourne, Victoria
Time to Lodge: 90 minutes from Launceston, 2 hours from Hobart or Devonport
Peak Season: Lakes - spring, summer (peak) and autumn, Rivers - spring, summer and autumn (both peak) * Note some lakes in the area have licenced fishing seasons which run from August to May.


Located in South Australia’s Port Lincoln – known as Australia’s seafood capital – Goin’ Off
is perfectly placed to offer a variety of fishing experiences, from deep sea sport fishing to beach fishing for big Australian salmon. The pristine waters of the southern ocean which surround Port Lincoln and Coffin Bay on the magnificent Eyre Peninsula are relatively untouched which makes for some amazing fishing adventures for all. Offering small groups of four to six, Goin’ Off Safaris targets a variety of fish species. Expect to be out deep, chasing tuna, yellowtail kingfish or samson fish with screaming reels or catching the prized table fish of King George whiting, flathead, garfish and trevally in the shallows.


Domestic Airport: Port Lincoln
International Airport: Adelaide
Time to Lodge: 20 minutes
Peak Season: October to May


The benchmark in remote tropical sport fishing, Kimberley Coastal Camp sits on the edge
of the pristine waters of Western Australia’s Admiralty Gulf– one of the best fishing
regions in Australia. With access via helicopter or float plane and guest numbers limited to just 16, fishing here is for the privileged few. Kimberley Coastal Camp boasts fabulous scenery, gourmet food, spectacular fishing and ancient rock art. With no pre-set itineraries, guests plan each day with their guide according to their preferences and the tidal movements. They can fish all day every day or take their catch ashore on a deserted island fringed by boab trees where a host and guide will cook it ‘bush style’ on the coals. Accommodation at Kimberley Coastal Camp is in gazebo-style cabins dotted around the camp with dining in The Shed, the communal area.


Domestic Airport: Kununurra, Broome, Darwin
International Airport: Perth and Darwin
Time to Lodge/Vessel: 2.5 hour flight, no road access
Peak Season: April to October


Kimberley HeliSpirit, the largest helicopter company in the region, offers half day to
multi day fishing adventures that combine the rugged beauty of the North Kimberley
landscape with some of the most spectacular barramundi fishing in Australia. Enjoying a bird’s eye view of the region’s amazing gorges, coastal flats and floodplains on their three day adventure, guests can experience two days heli-fishing from Kununurra with a chopper pilot who knows the secret fishing spots of the Kimberley – only accessible from the air. This is followed by an exciting one day saline boat fishing tour among some of the Top End’s biggest estuarine crocodiles along the mighty Ord River. To experience more of the remarkable Kimberley and include ocean fishing, there is a six-day option on HeliSpirit’s Luxury Kimberley Helicopter Safari.


Domestic Airport: Kununurra
International Airport: Darwin, Northern Territory and Perth, Western Australia
Time to Lodge: 10 minutes
Peak Season: April - October


Courtesy : Great Fishing Adventures of Australia, Tourism Australia

...Visit again soon for information on more extraordinary fishing operators in Part 2

Discover Tasmania

Guest blogger: Karen Stotz -

Wineglass Bay, Freycinet National Park

Wineglass Bay, Freycinet National Park

Untouched landscapes, the finest food and wine, and an intriguing culture define Australia’s only island state, Tasmania.

Its separation from the mainland may have once made Tasmania seem backward, but now paints it as an escape from a hectic world, with wide-open spaces, friendly people, and a time capsule of Australian heritage, captured within historic buildings and UNESCO World Heritage sites.

The island’s compact size and network of highways offer endless self-drive adventures that allow you to loop around the island, uncovering wilderness areas, exceptional food, and an intriguing island culture. Guided walks and cruises through national parks and UNESCO Wilderness World Heritage Areas are complimented with gourmet food and drink. Food highlights the very freshest of Tasmanian produce and wine ... and cider and whisky are hand-crafted using traditional methods.

Tasmania blends luxury into natural surroundings. Saffire Freycinet, a Luxury Lodge of Australia on Tasmania’s East Coast overlooks the Hazards mountain range. In Hobart, The Islington Hotel luxuriously captures old world charm, as does the Henry Jones Art Hotel, its walls adorned with local artworks for sale, while the Mona Pavilions onsite at Mona, the Museum of Old and New Art, broaden cultural boundaries.

Tasmania truly is a destination with plenty to discover.

Key Experiences:

Scenic Wilderness

Known to have the cleanest air in the world, Tasmania is also a treasure trove of natural wonders.

The diversity of Tasmania’s vegetation is remarkable and includes a high proportion of endemic plants and animals found nowhere else on earth. Around 40% of Tasmania is protected in national parks and reserves. All of them are stunningly beautiful, easily accessible and safe to visit.

Native Wildlife

Separated from mainland for the last 10,000 years, Tasmania has been a living museum, as its ancient marsupials survive in complete isolation. Tasmania offers refuge to a variety of threatened and elusive wildlife. The island also has 12 species of endangered birds.

A number of specialist tour operators can provide excellent opportunities to get up close-and-personal with Tasmanian devils, quolls, platypus, echidnas, wallabies and wombats in their native habitat.


Tasmania is a haven for food lovers with some of the finest artisan cheeses, berries, apples and pears, premium beef, specialty honey, cool climate wines and beers ... oh, and the very finest whiskies.

Visit farmers markets, stop at farm gates or road-side stalls to experience the very best.


Tasmania has over 2,800 km of managed walking tracks and over 880 km of separate walks throughout national parks, reserves and conservation areas. Trails ranging from short, easy walks with boardwalks and disabled access, to multi-day walking adventures will stun you.

Wine and Whisky

Tasmania is home to some of Australia’s leading cool climate wines. Travel the regional wine routes located throughout the state, each offering a sophisticated range of wine styles.

Tasmania also has thirteen whisky distilleries, many of them export to the world and feature regularly among prized international award show lists.

Art and Culture

Tasmania has a long tradition of creativity with an active community of artists, designers, makers and performers whose work is often inspired by Tasmania’s natural and political landscape.

Key Destinations & 'Must Considers':

Cradle Mountain

Cradle Mountain is one of Tasmania’s most visited natural attractions and is the starting point for the world famous Overland Track alpine walk.

Freycinet Peninsula

The stunning Freycinet National Park offers spectacular landscapes and a completely different coastal experience with pink granite mountains, white beaches, crystal-clear sea, and the world-famous Wineglass Bay.


Nestled amongst the foothills of Mt Wellington, Hobart, Tasmania’s capital city, offers a contrasting blend of heritage, scenery and culture, with a modern lifestyle in a setting of exceptional beauty.


One of Australia’s oldest cities, Launceston has one of the best-preserved early cityscapes in Australia with its elegant colonial and Victorian architecture and century-old parks. The rich farmland of the Tamar Valley region west of Launceston is a premier wine-growing region.


Nestled on the shores of massive Macquarie Harbour, Strahan is the gateway to the World Heritage listed Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park. Boat cruises provide an unforgettable journey into the temperate rainforests of the Gordon River with rare opportunities to see little penguins come ashore on the Bonnet Island.


Mona, the Museum of Old and New Art, is Australia’s largest private museum and houses a diverse private collection ranging from ancient Egyptian mummies to some of the world’s most infamous contemporary art.

Salamanca Market

Salamanca Market in Hobart, with its abundant fresh produce, should certainly also be on the 'must-visit' list. Set among historic Georgian sandstone buildings of Salamanca Place, this famous market attracts thousands of locals and visitors every Saturday.

Tasmanian Devils

The Tasmanian devil is endemic to Tasmania and is the world’s largest surviving carnivorous marsupial.

• Bonorong Wildlife Sanctuary near Hobart offers group and behind the scenes private tours.

• The Tasmanian Devil Unzoo on the highway to historic Port Arthur has a one-day Devil Tracker Adventure suitable for small groups.

Saffire Freycinet

Enjoy the breathtaking natural scenery of the Freycinet Peninsula with delicious local food and wine and impeccable service at Saffire Freycinet. This boutique hotel features a range of complimentary activities for guests to engage and connect with Freycinet’s stunning natural wonders.

Bruny Island

Bruny Island, south of Hobart, offers an abundance of experiences including opportunities to see rare white wallabies ... and, food lovers will be pleased with the array of gourmet food on offer.

An award winning eco-cruise allows you get a spectacular view of the island from the water.

Port Arthur Historic Sites

The World Heritage listed Port Arthur, Coal Mines and Cascades Female Factory sites bring Australia’s early convict history to life through guided tours, interactive experiences, dramatizations and world-class interpretation.

Three Capes Track

The Three Capes Track, Australia’s premier coastal bush-walking experience, takes in stunning views of the Tasman Peninsula, including Cape Pillar and Cape Hauy.

Par Avion

Par Avion’s latest day tour takes you to Tasmania’s wild West Coast over rugged mountains, wild rivers and roaring beaches. After landing at Strahan, enjoy a cruise on the Gordon River and hear stories of convicts, piners and miners. The 9-hour tour includes scenic flights, the cruise in a premium window recliner, buffet lunch, and refreshments.

Coral Expeditions Cruise

Coral Expeditions offers an exclusive 7-night coastal cruise showcasing the famous Freycinet National Park, Maria Island National Park, Port Arthur Historic Site, Bruny Island and Tasmania’s Western Wilderness World Heritage Area. Guests enjoy presentations from the resident archaeologist and exclusive behind-the-scenes tours.


Top 5 Fine Dining Restaurants Of Australia

Image :

Image :

The words fine dining can take our imagination to crisp table linens, waiters in tuxedos and incredible menus that celebrate each and every flavor.

However, Australia's fine dining restaurants can be in any setting, waiters in shirt sleeves ... albeit still offering incredible menus that celebrate ethnic and local flavors.

Apart from fabulous food, things that you can still expect in an Australian fine dining restaurant are:

1.  Attention to detail: From lighting, to music, to color scheme, to menu, great fine dining restaurants are all about detail. Nothing ever seems be too bright, too loud, too bold, or too 'over-powering' with subtlety being one key sign of excellence.

2. Well informed waiters who well know the restaurant and its menu and who seem to have answers for all questions.

3. Superior, understated, customer service.

4. Tasting menus: A prix fixe tasting menu showcasing specialties and often revolving around local produce. 

5. Finest dining equipment: While you can escape starched table-cloths, you'll nonetheless find a sense of subtle sophistication in all furnishing and dining equipment.

Now while you can certainly dine very well across the country at anytime, spoiled for choice, we've bravely put together our Top 5 Fine Dining Restaurants of Australia:

1. Brae, 4285 Cape Otway Road, Birregurra, VIC:

Brae has a contemporary rural setting, with an interior styled with brown furnishings, white table linens and moody ambient lighting. An open fire makes for a warm space for guests to dine, and Brae offers a unique, ever-changing menu, using home-grown produce from the resident farm to create stunning seasonal dishes.

2. Sepia, 201 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW:

Sepia is reflective of a bustling city atmosphere, with a dining setting of contemporary sophistication and finesse that you'd expect in one of the great-cities-of-the-world. 

3. Quay, Overseas Passenger Terminal, The Rocks, NSW:

With sweeping views of Sydney's Opera House and Harbour Bridge, Quay Restaurant is considered to be one of Sydney's finest dining locations. The restaurant's food, décor, service and extensive wine list are unforgettable. Chef Peter Gilmore's imaginative menu is dramatic, and one that has brought him numerous well deserved culinary accolades.

4. Attica, 74 Glen Eira Road, Melbourne, VIC:

Attica has been consistently recognized as one of the world’s best restaurants, and sets the benchmark for fine dining in Melbourne. Holding a plethora of awards, Attica is known for its innovation, purity of flavors and sustainability that deserve high praise. Attica’s understated interior is satisfying and complements what’s served on the plates, using muted tones to offer a truly memorable dining experience.

[Read Our Previous Blog on Top 5 Seafood Restaurants In Sydney]

5. Momofuku Seiobo, 80 Pyrmont Street, Pyrmont, NSW:

You can say that magic happens inside Momofuku Seiobo. Slick and vibrant, it's a unique and fascinating display of food, and presentation. Momofuku has a constantly changing tasting menu, and is full of contemporary, and adventurous cuisine ... with an Australian twist. Using the very best local produce, Momofuku Seiobo offers no hint of what you'll be tasting until it's placed in front of you. 

Let the 'arguments' begin ...

Great Walks of Australia : Part II

Guest blogger: Gina Woodward -

Great Walks of Australia - Larapinta outback night sky

Great Walks of Australia - Larapinta outback night sky

If you’ve never experienced an Australian outback sky, then taking one of the Great Walks of Australia is a very special way to experience this breathtaking sight.

The changing of the seasons is also very special to experience. Sometimes we can forget what seasons really mean - apart from just grabbing a sweater or turning up the heat.

It’s these transformative moments when you take yourself out of the everyday, that can make all the difference to a vacation – they form the experience. One that you get to take home and call on whenever you need.

Here are some more amazing places to experience these moments, on foot and in comfort on one of the Great Walks of Australia.

Northern Territory

In Central Australia, the Classic Larapinta Trek in Comfort by Australian Walking Holidays is a unique way to enjoy highlights of the iconic Larapinta Trail over 6 days with comfort provided in spacious tents complete with relaxing deck areas.

Three semi-permanent camps located throughout the West MacDonnell Ranges offer a unique and supported way to discover the delights of the outback on foot. Indigenous experiences are key to this walk including food and informative guides.

The winter months in the Red Center of Australia are not only prime night sky viewing thanks to less humidity and clear skies, but also a great time for bird-watching. Again, more campfire moments, shared travel stories and laughs over wine offer transformative experiences for travelers.


In South East Queensland’s Main Range National Park is the Scenic Rim Trail by Spicers Retreats. Famous for its stunning collection of mountains, ridges, forest and ancient volcanic plateaus, this 4 day walk covers trail areas with private access only. The walk finishes with a night at the luxurious Spicers Peak Lodge, also one of the Luxury Lodges of Australia, and Australia’s highest non-alpine lodge at 1100m.

In the middle of their walking season, cooler temperatures are great for walking, and the night-time atmosphere with a glass of red wine and crackling logs on the fire is friendly and warm. The hot tubs at Canopy and Spicers Peak Lodges are truly tempting and can offer post-hike relief for weary limbs.

Many of the animals in this conservation area start to get a little more active in August with the impending Spring and breeding season.

Expanding the collection

In acknowledging the existence and development of even more incredible trails around the country, Great Walks of Australia expanded beyond their Signature Collection Walks in 2017. The new walk members offer the same standards as the signature walks – great service, fabulous food and wine, expert guides, and unique locations. Only the accommodation differs, hence their inclusion at a different level than the strict criteria of signature collection members.

New South Wales

Pinetrees 83 by Luke Hanson.jpg

Two new member walks have been added, both in NSW. The first was the new Seven Peaks Walk on Lord Howe Island. A first for NSW in the Great Walks of Australia collection, this six day walk is based at Pinetrees Lodge - stunning boutique accommodation that's not however for the exclusive use of just walkers, unlike those in the signature collection. This UNESCO World Heritage listed island destination is a bird watcher’s paradise and offers a range of walking trails, from moderate days out exploring the island through to the extreme challenge of the Mt Gower ascent. Walk options are determined with the guides depending on guest ability and enthusiasm.

Recognizing the need to also add some shorter walks to the group for those who are more limited in their holiday time, the second walk is the Blue Mountains Grand Traverse by AusWalk. This walk takes in spectacular highlights of the easily accessed Blue Mountains – the Grand Canyon, the National Pass and Ruined Castle. A three day/two night trip ex-Sydney, this walk gives a true taste of a great walks experience but allows guests to make the most of limited time and easy access to a capital city.

[Read our Previous blog Great Walks Of Australia : Part I]

Many guests reflecting on their Great Walks of Australia experiences often refer to moments that transformed them, and what parts of each experience they can refer to in their daily lives. Was it the delicate detail of the wildflowers? Did they meet eye-to-eye with some friendly wildlife and share a moment? Did they spot a bird they’d never previously seen, or share a fireside story with a stranger? Were they surprised by their ability to switch off their devices and manage without them? Did they embrace their natural curls and secretly not miss their hairdryer? Whatever their moment was, it's their own to embrace and remind them to sometimes step outside their comfort zone and explore something new when the time arises.

Whatever you call it – walking, trekking, hiking, bush-walking or tramping, exploring on foot brings a whole new meaning to a place, and is a great way to discover in-depth the place you have chosen to explore with your guide and some new friends.

If you want to experience a transformative holiday, a moment in time that changes you, then the next step is yours …

Great Walks of Australia : Part I

Guest blogger: Gina Woodward -

Great Walks of Australia - Bay of Fires Lodge Walk

Disconnect to reconnect is something that the members of Great Walks of Australia often talk about – and their guests relish the opportunity to do just this, in their own time and with only nature (and knowledgeable guides) determining how their day ahead is looking. Each day on a great walk is a new day.

Great Walks of Australia has assembled a collection of premium guided walking experiences that engage walkers in some of the world’s most spectacular terrain. This collection of twelve member walks, ten of these making up the Signature Collection, inspire guests to explore Australia’s diverse landscape and reconnect with nature and themselves.

The walks cover coastal, inland and outback trails on journeys led by expert guides with a deep understanding and appreciation of the environment. All walk operators provide the utmost in style and comfort with great food and wine, plus accommodations including historic homesteads, wilderness camps, private huts and luxury lodges. They all offer a remarkable nature experience and the chance to take time out in unique locations throughout Australia including …


The Tasmanian contingent of Great Walks is currently represented by long established businesses operating The Maria Island Walk, Freycinet Experience Walk, Cradle Mountain Huts Walk and Bay of Fires Lodge Walk.

The latter two are offered by Tasmanian Walking Company who have been appointed as the official guided walk operator for the new Three Capes Track. Their walk experience is planned to be ready for walkers later in 2018.

Each walk in Tasmania offers a truly unique experience – some are lodge based, others are journey style (point-to-point) walks. Walkers can explore mountains, islands and pristine beaches including the Bay of Fires or the iconic Wineglass Bay on the Freycinet Experience Walk.

Wildlife is also a key feature of these walks – especially on Maria Island, a UNESCO World Heritage listed island with a very healthy population of wombats, wallabies and Tasmanian Devils. The Overland Track, covered on the Cradle Mountain Huts Walk, is the most popular guided walk in Australia and a real peak bagging experience (think Mt Ossa, Tasmania’s tallest mountain) for hikers inclined to tick boxes, conquer peaks and add rocks to evergrowing cairns.


Back on the mainland, Victoria’s Twelve Apostles Lodge Walk by Australian Walking Company explores 35 miles of the Great Ocean Walk. This is a lodge based experience, complete with an in-house chef and foot-baths, with transfers for guests available from Melbourne. The undulating terrain sees walkers exploring beaches, rock clifftop and open forested areas with views of the famed Apostles that remain. A scenic helicopter ride on the last day gives walkers a great sense of achievement seeing where they have just been on foot during the week.

Western Australia

In 2016, the Great Walks of Australia Signature Collection expanded to the first member walk for Western Australia, the Margaret River Cape to Cape Walk by Walk into Luxury. This 4 day / 3 night guided experience covers 25 miles of coast, limestone caves and Karri forests, the highlights of this renowned 80 mile trail. Combined with the magnificent food and wine of the Margaret River region, plus the luxury of Injidup Spa Retreat as the lodge base for walkers, this is a truly pampered way to walk in the west. Resting at day’s end in a private plunge pool overlooking the Indian Ocean at sunset would have to be one of life’s great pleasures ... with a glass of Margaret River wine of course. Spring is a wonderful time to experience whale sightings on this coastal walk and it’s also prime wildflower viewing season. The whole place just comes alive.

South Australia

A unique addition to the collective in 2016 was Signature Collection walk number ten, the Murray River Walk by Luxury River Trails. Based out of Renmark in South Australia, this walk utilizes a houseboat as a lodge-based accommodation element. It’s a great way to relax on a hike and each day’s hike starts with the first step off the back of the boat. Magical sunrises await the walkers in this bird watcher’s paradise, as well as plenty of Australian wildlife, and wildflowers inhabiting the varied terrain of the Murray-Riverland. Food foraging is also part of the experience with new saltbush leaves, samphire and native river mint foraged to finish up on the dinner plates. Ending the day with a hot shower, a superb meal and some riverside campfire tales makes for a wonderful winter walking experience.

In this state, the collection also features The Arkaba Walk in the Flinders Ranges, a stunning four day walk through ancient landscapes and a 60,000 acre private wildlife conservancy. Their walking season is a beautiful time with spectacular sunrises and sunsets, plus cold nights and brilliant edge of the outback skies. Roaring campfires at night and glasses of South Australian wine are a fine way to celebrate and stay warm. Guests enjoy 'glamping-under-the-stars' for two nights, and finish with one overnight in Arkaba Homestead, one of the Luxury Lodges of Australia. The stars, sunrises and sunsets over red rock outcrops, and wildlife sightings are all highlights of this exploratory walking trip.

Since 2009, much work has been done to change the face of what was a working sheep station from 1851. The team at Wild Bush Luxury, operators of the Arkaba Walk, have put into place several successful conservation programs across the property, focusing primarily on feral species eradication and reversing the impacts of years of livestock grazing. The wildlife has returned and are now happily flourishing in their home overlooked by the Elder Ranges and Wilpena Pound. Seeing wildlife in their native surrounds is another one of those moments to be treasured.

This walk, along with The Maria Island Walk, are also now proud members of the newly created Australian Wildlife Journeys group.

This Great Walks of Australia collection is almost a 'bucket-list' for many people. Many guests have commented that although it’s exciting to hear about new walks, they wish more walks weren’t being added as they thought they had almost ticked them all off.   Such a tough problem to have when you’re thinking about your next great walk.

Discover Aboriginal Australia


You can now deeply connect with Australia and see the country through the eyes of its first inhabitants with experiences from the Indigenous Tourism Champions collective.


The collective of inspiring Aboriginal experiences offers diversity and engagement bound to leave a lasting impression. With over 50 members in the collective delivering 180+ experiences Australia-wide, these transformational experiences have been carefully selected as some of Australia’s very best. 

Every part of Australia is Aboriginal country, and every part of the country has a series of stories and experiences unique to that place. 

As custodians of the world’s most ancient living culture, Indigenous Australians have a continuous history that stretches back more than 50,000 years. Their story is linked to the birth of the Australian continent and its ancient landscapes.


Aboriginal Australia emphasizes spirituality, custodianship of the land and the connections between all things.  The modern Australian landscape records with every stone the Ancestor Spirits’ long journeys. These travels form the basis for the ‘Dreaming stories’ that are still told today. By learning about Indigenous Australian culture, you’ll arrive at a better understanding of Aboriginal people and the ancient land they inhabit. 


Whether you're in a city, traveling the outback, or enjoying a coastal holiday, you can certainly find ways to connect with the world’s oldest living culture. 


Importantly all experiences are guided by Aboriginal people who share personal stories about their own country and connection to place, bringing the landscape to life. Aboriginal guides are warm and welcoming. They’re often keen to share their story ... and known for their sense of humor.

The Indigenous Tourism Champions collective offers an exciting array of accommodation, activities and tours ... with options to taste bush tucker, experience the healing powers of nature, discover breathtaking scenery, ancient rock art galleries, meet artists, or take an art workshop yourself to gain a first-hand insight into the creation of contemporary Aboriginal art.

To further assist in flavoring itineraries with these Aboriginal experiences, you can also view the Indigenous Tourism Champions Fact Sheet detailing information on each of the experiences.

Air Adventure Australia


For the past four decades, Air Adventure Australia's scheduled tours have been making hard-to-reach Australian destinations easily accessible. More recently they’ve introduced a series of private charter transfer tours, designed to not only get you to your next destination effortlessly, but also to provide unforgettable experiences along the way.

Below are just some of the transfer tours now available:

Melbourne to Kangaroo Island via 12 Apostles


This transfer tour allows guests to experience the wonders of The Great Ocean Road and the 12 Apostles from the air (with a low level scenic flight), and from the ground. A  former National Park Ranger will be your tour guide for the day as you explore Gibson Steps, the 12 Apostles viewing platform and Loch Ard Gorge. Lunch is a locally caught lobster before flying directly to Kangaroo Island. Learn More

Melbourne to Kangaroo Island via Mayura Station


This transfer tour will certainly appeal to foodies. Guests experience the wonders of the 12 Apostles from the air and land before flying onward to South Australia’s multi-award winning Mayura Station - a full-blood Wagyu beef cattle station. Here, you can experience an authentic paddock-to-plate lunch and matching wines in Mayura's Tasting Room. After a leisurely 4-course lunch fly directly to Kangaroo Island. Learn More.

Tasmania to Kangaroo Island via 12 Apostles


Travel between Saffire Freycinet on Tasmania’s east coast and Southern Ocean Lodge in just a few hours with ample time to experience the beauty of the 12 Apostles from the air and from the ground. The  Gibson steps and Loch Ard Gorge are two of the locations you will visit during a guided tour of the region, before flying onward to Kangaroo Island. Learn More.

Kangaroo Island to Arkaba via Mayura Station


Guests traveling between Southern Ocean Lodge and Arkaba can now enjoy Mayura Station’s premium Wagyu beef – produce normally reserved for Michelin star restaurants all over the world.
At Mayura Station you will experience a private behind-the-scenes tour of the cattle station, and a 4-course master-class style lunch at Mayura's Tasting Room, followed by a direct flight to Hawker. Learn More

Kangaroo Island to Uluru via Angorichina


Three vastly different landscapes in one day. The lush greens of Kangaroo Island are replaced with the rugged and spectacular gorges of the Flinders Ranges and then the desert landscape of the Red Center. During this tour you will experience authentic outback hospitality at Angorichina Station – a 554 sq. kilometre sheep ranch. A guided tour and traditional homestead-style lunch is provided before the onward flight to Uluru. Learn More


Since 1977, Air Adventure has been an industry leader in outback air safaris and over the years have solved the problem of vast distances for thousands of visitors to Australia. They cater to discerning travelers who wish to maximize their time 'down-under'; enabling travelers access to places others simply cannot go.


Luxury Lodges Of Australia : Western Australia

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Western Australia has four premium level lodges providing sensational, one-of-a-kind hospitality, in spectacular natural locations.

Subtle local interventions are elegantly woven into each of these properties where you can indulge in 'out-of-this-world' experiences, with each luxury lodge offering a profoundly different magical effect.

So, let’s take a look at four very different premium lodges in Western Australia.

1. Cape Lodge

A stay at Margaret River's Cape Lodge is more like residing at a private country estate, yet with all the paraphernalia of a world-class boutique hotel. Located on its very own vineyard and producing fine Shiraz and Sauvignon Blanc for guests, Cape Lodge is heaven for those yearning to enjoy outstanding food and wine in the heart of the world-renowned Margaret River wine region. You can also find great wineries in Pierro, Cullen, Moss Wood and Vasse Felix close by. 

Twenty two romantically designed rooms and a magnificent 5-bedroom private residence welcome guests to a secluded retreat sitting on 40 acres of parkland and ornamental lakes.

The Cape Lodge Restaurant features a sensational menu of seasonal home-grown produce, and paired Margaret River wines.

Getting There: By Air: Cape Lodge can be accessed by flights from all major Australian airports via Perth.

By Car: It's just a 3-hour drive south from Perth.

Things to Remember: Margaret River is a place of inspiration for many acclaimed jewelers, photographers, painters, and craftsmen, and, when not indulging in wine tastings, or 'relaxing' at the beach, you can easily spend time wandering the artisan trail.

2. El Questro Homestead

Solitude can be found at El Questro Homestead, located on 700,000 acres of vast and stunningly beautiful terrain ... and more than 60-miles from the nearest town. Some of Australia’s best wilderness vistas can be seen from this cliff-top lodge serving just eighteen guests.

This east-Kimberley based luxury lodge also offers fabulous wilderness tours. You can soak in the Zebedee thermal springs, cruise private gorges with permanent waterfalls, experience the terrain on foot or on horse-back, or enjoy the vast wilderness from the air. 

El Questro is renowned for serving scrumptious cuisine in the most dramatic locations - we recommend sunset drinks overlooking Chamberlain Gorge, and dinner under a canopy of stars.

Getting There: By Air: You fly in to Kununurra. There are regular flights from major Australian cities to Kununurra via Perth, Darwin, and Broome.

By Car: El Questro Homestead can be reached by car via Gibb River Road ... considered one of Australia's great outback drives.

3. Sal Salis  

One of Australia’s very best kept natural secrets can be found at the luxury lodge, Sal Salis, located among the coastal dunes of Ningaloo Reef. With just 15 eco-luxe tents (plus one very special honeymoon 'suite' ), Sal Salis offers one of the very best locations to swim with marine giants as they migrate through each year. 

With a 'touch-of-barefoot-style' in a remote and spectacular wilderness, Sal Salis offers a chance to reconnect with nature ... and with prolific wildlife ... given the mobs of euros, red kangaroos, wallabies, emus and echidna in and around the camp.

You can go on guided wildlife safaris in Cape Range National Park, or get amazed by the marine life around Ningaloo Reef. Supported by some of the best local cuisine and fine Western Australian wines, the camp’s environment ensures a memorable bare-foot wilderness experience. 

Getting There: By Air: Qantas flies daily to Exmouth. The Sal Salis team will collect you from the airport ... or you can request a scenic flight.

By Car: From Perth, it's a 13-hour drive north to Sal Salis, or 1 hour 30 minutes drive from Exmouth. 

Things to Remember: The camp is not sign posted, and, there's a “No Drive After Dark” policy within the Cape Range National Park given the abundance of wildlife.

4. True North

A signature luxury cruise that has long been regarded as one of Australia’s most outstanding adventure tourism experiences, True North offers flagship Kimberley cruises. The activity-based itineraries are designed for discerning travelers who wish to experience Australia’s most remote islands, spectacular gorges, majestic waterfalls, and hard-to-access coastal regions.

[Our Previous Blog was on Luxury Lodges Of Australia : Northern Territory, Tasmania And Victoria]

The cruises have all been designed to access wilderness with spacious cabins featuring modern décor, and offer a range of tour options from scenic heli-picnics to overnight camping adventures.

Getting There: True North Cruises are located in Broome, from where the signature Kimberley Wilderness Cruise departs. The vessel also picks up guests from Kununurra.

True North cruises also depart from several other Australian capital cities. For details, go to:

Things to Remember:  If your primary focus is wildlife-watchingwe suggest traveling in the build-up to monsoon when rivers become fuller and masses of wildlife congregate on the shores.


Luxury Lodges Of Australia : Northern Territory, Tasmania and Victoria

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In our last few blogs we’ve spoken about fabulous lodges in natural Australian settings, boasting majestic views and exclusive hospitality ... and as promised, this blog introduces more such luxury lodges in Northern Territory, Tasmania and Victoria. 

Saffire Freycinet (Tasmania)

Discretely positioned on Tasmania's mid east coast Freycinet Peninsula and overlooking Hazards Mountain and Great Oyster Bay, Saffire luxury lodge offers a memorable blend of man and nature.

The property features a fabulous array of suites, an exclusive spa, and a stunning restaurant, Palate, where chef Todd Adams produces innovative dining based on world-renowned Tasmanian produce.

Saffire also offers spa treatments designed by celebrity facialist Marionne De Candia, and chiropractic doctor Dr. Jean Laing.

Getting There: By Air: Helicopter or light aircraft transfers can be arranged by Saffire.

By Car: You can choose a chauffeur-driven transfer, or self-drive 3-hours from Hobart, or just 2.5-hours from Launceston along Coles Bay Road.

Things to Remember: 1. If self-driving to Saffire, remember that driving around dawn and dusk can be hazardous as wildlife may be in abundance. 2. From breakfast to gourmet dinner, you can customize your dining experience.

Lake House (Victoria)

In the heart of Victoria’s spa country, on the shores of scenic Lake Daylesford lies Lake House . Nestled among 6 acres of towering trees, Lake House offers a village-like cluster of cream colored buildings providing direct access to lake walks and the Wombat State Forest. While staying at Lake House, you'll likely experience wallabies, wombats, kookaburras, gang gangs ... oh, and thousands of cockatoos.

Over three decades Lake House has fostered an excellent network of local suppliers and has become a mecca for food travelers. In nearby Daylesford, every country lane seems to offer farm-gate sales of organic fruits, veggies, honey, eggs, and rare breeds of lamb, beef and pork.

Lake House boasts a renowned restaurant featuring modern Australian cuisine, a fabulous wine list ... and a cellar of over 10,000 bottles.

Getting There: By Air: The Lake House can be easily accessed from Melbourne Airport.

By Car: It’s a 90-minute drive from Melbourne. 

Things to Remember: We recommend a hands-on culinary workshop hosted by Alla Wolf-Tasker in a state-of-the-art demonstration kitchen.

Longitude 131° (Northern Territory)

Longitude 131° offers an outback luxury base-camp amidst desert beauty rich with cultural heritage and history. Luxurious tented pavilions floating over rust-red dunes welcome you to experience classic touches and indigenous textures that evoke an earthy sanctuary.

Enjoy unparalleled vistas of the fabled Ayers Rock / Kata Tjuta from your room, experience the stories of this spirited land, enjoy an outback sundowner at the Dune House, and savor exceptional meals that celebrate a perfect blend of modern and outback flavors.

We also highly recommend dining under a glittering canopy of stars at Table 131°.

Getting There: By Air: Virgin Australia offer direct flights ex Sydney, and Jetstar and Qantas also operate regular flights from Sydney, Melbourne and Cairns via Alice Springs.

By Car: Complimentary 4WD transfers can be arranged from Ayers Rock Airport to Longitude 131°. Alternatively, you can opt for a 4-5 hours scenic drive from Alice Springs via King's Canyon.

Things to Remember : Longitude 131° recently re-opened after extensive renovations.

Bamurru Plains (Northern Territory)

With an abundance of wildlife and an extraordinary bush experience on the edge of Kakadu National Park, Bamurru Plains offers ecologically sensitive, understated luxurious comfort. The 10-room camp safari ensures that guests are introduced to the sights and sounds of the surrounding environment in style and comfort. 

[Read Our Previous Blog : Ultimate Winery Experiences]

Bamurru’s passionate field guides offer a variety of activities that include crocodile spotting on the Sampan River, scenic helicopter rides over the coastline and floodplains, four-wheel drive safaris, and tours to the nearby rock art galleries of Arnhem Land.

While in Bamurru, you'll get a chance to encounter Australia’s richest wildlife in the floodplains and savannah woodlands. Spot tens of thousands of Magpie Geese, whistling kites, egrets, herons, blue-winged Kookaburras, cockatoos, parrots and agile rock wallabies.

As evening sets, sit back with a cocktail and canapes to enjoy wild bush luxury that is an exclusive Bamurru trademark.

Getting There: By Air: You can take a 30-minute charter flight from Darwin or Jabiru. 

By Car: It’s a 2 ½- hour drive to the property entrance from Darwin.

Things to Remember: 1. If you're into fishing ... this is a great spot  2.Private vehicles are not allowed inside the property.


Stay tuned for our next blog focused on luxury lodges in Western Australia. 

Ultimate Winery Experiences



Ultimate Winery Experiences Australia (UWEA) is a hand-picked collection of Australia’s premium wineries offering exciting and immersive winery experiences based around world-class wines, warm and knowledgeable hospitality, and culinary excellence. 

Australia’s signature wines have as much personality as their makers. 'Approachable', 'unpretentious' and 'gutsy' are words that could be used to describe Australia's world-renowned wines - and equally the people behind them. Walk into almost any cellar door from Margaret River to the Hunter Valley, and you're likely to find yourself chatting to the wine maker and several family members - often second or third generation vignerons.  The relaxed and democratic nature of those in the industry belies Australia’s reputation as one of the most outstanding wine-producing countries in the world.          

These experiences are designed to take visitors ‘beyond-the-cellar-door’ to discover characteristics unique to each winery and region. A pre-booked wine tasting experience can range from an intimate tutored wine tasting and chance to meet the winemakers, to a wine blending lesson to test and better understand your own palate. While tasting wine is the central theme, the variety of experiences on offer and the diversity of the wineries within the collection mean that no two are the same. Many experiences also include complementary activities to enhance connection with the region, such as a scenic regional flight, a cooking class, a relaxing bike ride, or on adventurous 4WD tour. 

UWEA have also designed ‘Wine Trails’ – itineraries connecting winery experiences and regions with suggestions for additional activities and accommodation.

What sets the collection apart is a commitment to visitor experience and not simply venues to taste and purchase wine. They offer a memorable experience featuring quality restaurants, accommodation, winery and vineyard tours, as well as exciting behind-the-scenes winery packages allowing visitors to interact more directly with the product, the winemakers and enjoy first-hand the rich diversity that Australia’s wine regions have to offer.


New South Wales

Hunter Valley :

Approximately two hours drive north of Sydney is the famous Hunter Valley wine region. The Hunter Valley is home to over 130 wineries producing a wide array of exceptional wines. It is recognized as a world leader in dry white wines made from Semillon. The region specializes in fine food and wine, and hosts a busy calendar of events. It's also renowned for its national parks, spa retreats, and great golf.  UWEA member Audrey Wilkinson is one of the oldest wineries in the region and boasts award-winning wines and incredible views over the nearby Brokenback Ranges.


Yarra Valley :

Yarra Valley wineries produce some of the world’s best cool-climate wines and are renowned for restaurants that match their wines with regional produce sourced from nearby orchards, farm gates and dairies.  Located less than one hour's drive east of Melbourne, the beauty, climate and fresh produce of the valley, just a stone’s throw from the city, is a popular choice for fans of fine food and wine. Award winning winery De Bortoli Yarra Valley Estate is one of the valley’s largestThis family owned and managed winery produces high-quality cool climate wines from 240 hectares of vines, some more than 40 years old.

King Valley :

Victoria’s stunning King Valley is located at the foothills of the Alpine National Park, approximately 3 hours north-east of Melbourne. The King Valley wine region has become known as Australia’s home of Italian wine varieties although the region has also long been producing traditional cool climate wines.  UWEA members Pizzini Wines and Brown Brothers Milawa offer highly diverse but equally engaging winery experiences that celebrate the wine, food and personality of the King Valley.

Strathbogie Ranges:

The unique and relatively unknown region of the Strathbogie Ranges is located just 60 miles (100 kilometres) north of Melbourne.  This ruggedly beautiful and highly diverse region produces distinctive wines from over 25 vineyards. Fowles Wine cellar door based in Avenel at the foothills of the Strathbogie Ranges is renowned for making cool-climate wines to match with food. In fact, what really sets them apart is their 'Ladies Who Shoot their Lunch' and 'Are You Game?' wines - blended specifically to match with wild game.

Nagambie Lakes :

Located just 90 minutes from Melbourne, Nagambie Lakes is known for its picturesque habitats of tall, shady red river gums and tranquil views of the Goulburn River and surrounding wetlands.  Visitors can enjoy premium wines, pristine habitat and quaint towns filled with cafes, local produce stores, antique shops and galleries. Nagambie Lakes is home to Tahbilk. Established in 1860, Tahbilk is not only one of Australia’s oldest wineries but also boasts the world’s largest, and some of the oldest, plantings of Marsanne and Shiraz. 

Mornington Peninsula :

On the eastern side of Port Phillip Bay and within an hour’s drive of Melbourne, the Mornington Peninsula is famous for its exceptional wine, seaside villages, world-class golf courses, spa retreats and local produce. 

As well as award-winning wine, Montalto Vineyard & Olive Grove is highly regarded for its welcoming ambiance, relaxed Australian architecture, intimate cellar door, and the beauty of its grounds that include an olive grove, acclaimed restaurant and café, sculpture walk and wetlands.


Tasmania produces elegant cool climate wines at around 200 vineyards and wineries. Tasmania’s food and wine experiences spring from its pristine water and pure air and the skill of its growers and makers. As well as its stunning wines, it produces famous cheeses, premium beef, honey, and some of Australia's best boutique beers.  The collection boasts two well known Tasmanian wineries – Josef Chromy Wines near Launceston, and Moorilla at the famous MONA, the Museum of Old and New Art, in Hobart.

South Australia

Adelaide Hills :

The Adelaide Hills wine region is known for its elegant cool climate wines. Located in the Mount Lofty Ranges just 20-minutes east of Adelaide, the region is Australia’s largest geographical wine region, and one of the most diverse in terms of climate, soil and topography. Esteemed Adelaide Hills wineries Penfolds Magill Estate and The Lane Vineyard are proud members of the UWEA collection.

Barossa Valley :

The Barossa wine region is a contemporary region with a European tradition of celebrating food and wine that spans seven generations. The Barossa wine region has a long history of making full-bodied reds, fortified and robust white wines.  Here, world-famous wine brands Jacob’s Creek, St Hugo and Seppeltsfield offer beyond-the-cellar door experiences.

McLaren Vale :

Nestled between the Mount Lofty Ranges and white sandy beaches, the picturesque region features rolling hills, vineyards, a rugged coastline and charming villages. As well as exceptional wine, the region is known for its produce, on offer at its 110 wineries and 65 cellar doors, five-star retreats, quirky cafés and funky art galleries. The collection includes two of McLaren Vale’s best-loved wineries, d’Arenberg and Wirra Wirra Wines.

Western Australia

Margaret River :

Geographically isolated, Margaret River specializes in great wines, memorable regional cuisine and spectacular scenery.  Highly regarded as a producer of powerful yet elegant Cabernet Sauvignon, Margaret River is also famous for its white wines, especially its Chardonnay and Semillon/ Sauvignon Blanc blends. Margaret River’s ideal climate, good soil and maritime environment produce consistently superior vintages that confirm its reputation as one of the premium wine producing regions of the world.  Three of the region’s best regarded wineries are members of the UWEA collection: Leeuwin Estate, Vasse Felix and Voyager Estate.

Australian Wildlife Journeys : Part II

Maria Island Walk, Tasmania

Maria Island Walk, Tasmania

In the initial phase of this series [Read our previous blog  Australian Wildlife Journeys : Part I], we discussed some of the wildlife tourism experiences of Australia. 

Here are some more great Aussie destinations, more great wildlife tourism experiences ... and more great wildlife tourism operators.

Lady Elliot Island Eco Resort, Queensland

Lady Elliot Island is a true coral cay located on the southern tip of Australia's iconic Great Barrier Reef, situated within a highly protected ‘Green Zone’ of the Marine National Park. It is regarded as one of the best diving and snorkeling sites, with its offshore and southern location resulting in outstanding water clarity, perfect to admire year round Manta Rays, reef sharks, hard and soft corals and tropical fish.

Lady Elliot Island has the highest seabird diversity of any island along the reef, with a number of species migrating to the island between October and April to nest including noddies, terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and Red-tailed Tropic Birds. The beaches are also sanctuaries for nesting Green and Loggerhead Turtles over the summer months whilst Humpback Whales migrate past the island from June to October.

Lady Elliot Island Eco-Resort is a low-key resort that accommodates up to 150 overnight guests and is world acclaimed for the range of environmental best-practice measures implemented, including an extensive citizen science reef monitoring program in which guests participate.

Lords Kakadu and Arnhemland Safaris, Northern Territory

Lords Kakadu and Arnhemland Safaris has been connecting guests to the Northern Territory’s ‘Top End’ for over 25 years. Located just over 100 miles (170km) southeast of Darwin, Kakadu National Park is one of the world’s most magnificent natural reserves, boasting 280 bird species, 77 mammals, 50 species of freshwater fish, 132 reptiles and more than 50,000 years of Indigenous history and culture.

The wetlands of Kakadu are a birdwatcher’s paradise, given the immense concentration of waterbirds, especially in the dry season, including Magpie Geese, Whistling Ducks, Great Egrets, Royal Spoonbills, Black-winged Stilts, Great-billed Herons, Brolgas, Comb-crested Jacanas and Black-necked Storks (Jabirus). The combination of floodplains and wetlands, savanna woodlands, sand-stone cliffs and escarpments provide sanctuary for Agile and Wilkin’s Rock Wallabies, Northern Bandicoots, Black and Antilopine Wallaroos, Northern Quolls, Dingoes, flying-foxes, Ghost Bats, goannas, frogs, pythons, and cathedral termite mounds. But it's the massive populations of the world’s largest reptile, the Saltwater Crocodile, that has made this area so famous.

Oz Whale Watching, New South Wales

The sparkling waters and stunning skyline of Sydney Harbor has long been recognized as one of the most beautiful urban settings in the world, but what is surprising is the diverse wildlife viewing opportunities at Sydney’s doorstep. Sydney has more marine species than any other harbour in the world and is a superb location to observe the incredible Humpback Whale migration from May to November each year. Further out to sea where the continental shelf drops off, the region is one of Australia’s best pelagic birding sites, with an abundance of albatross species across winter months, shearwaters in summer months, with petrels, gannets, skuas, terns, gannets and gulls also present.

Image Credit : Trevor Scouten

Image Credit : Trevor Scouten

Oz Whale Watching is part of the Sydney Princess Group, with the company dedicated to showcasing the remarkable nature and cultural based offerings of the area. Aside from whale watching and pelagic birding trips, the company offers guided tours around Sydney National Harbour, with snorkelling at Shelley Beach providing the opportunity to spot Blue Groper, Gunthers and Dusky Butterflyfish, Black Rock Cod, Wobbegongs, Cuttlefish, Potbelly Seahorses and the ethereal Weedy Sea Dragon.

Premier Travel Tasmania

Australia’s largest island is the beautiful state of Tasmania, where around forty per cent of land is protected via national parks and reserves. Premier Travel Tasmania has been sharing this pristine region’s abundant wildlife, diverse flora, pristine wilderness, rich heritage, gourmet food & wine and local characters for over 20 years.

Renowned as a prime area for marsupial spotting, Tasmania is a crucial habitat for many lesser known species, including Eastern and Spotted Quolls, Eastern Barred and Southern Brown Bandicoots, Tasmanian Bettongs and Long-nosed Potoroos. This is in addition to Platypus, Echidnas, Forester Kangaroos, Bennett’s Wallabies, Common Wombats and the most famous resident, the Tasmanian Devil.

Numerous World Heritage Listed areas are scattered across the state, comprised of rugged mountains, temperate rainforests, wetlands, white sandy beaches and massive dolerite cliffs. This provides sanctuary for an abundance of birdlife, including the twelve Tasmanian endemic species such as the Forty-spotted Pardalote, Green Rosellas, Black Currawongs, Yellow Wattlebirds, Tasmanian Scrubwrens and Strong-billed Honeyeaters. The marine offerings are also spectacular with touring covering colonies of Australian Fur Seals, Common and Bottlenose Dolphins and the adorable Little Penguin.

SEIT Outback Australia, Northern Territory

Australia’s ‘Red Centre’ is considered the spiritual heart of Australia, due to its incredible desert landscapes, rich indigenous history and iconic rock formations such as Uluru, Kata Tjuta, Kings Canyon and Mt Conner. The Anangu people of Uluru have been the traditional custodians of this ancient land for many generations, balancing the intricate relationship between people, plants, animals and landscapes.

SEIT Outback Australia has been sharing insights into this balance for many years, showcasing the remarkable wildlife that thrive in these semi-arid environments. This is a prime region for spotting reptiles including the iconic Thorny Devil, Shingleback & Blue-tongued Lizard, Bearded and Central-netted Dragon, Sand Goanna and occasionally the largest lizard in Australia, the Perentie. It’s also a hotspot for birds of prey such as Whistling Kites, Nankeen Kestrels, Black-breasted Buzzards, Brown Falcons, Australian Hobby Falcons and Wedge-tailed Eagles. Nomadic Zebra Finches, Budgerigars and Painted Finches are also prize sightings after rainfall has occurred.

The Maria Island Walk, Tasmania

World Heritage Listed Maria Island is located just off Tasmania’s east coast and is known for its historic ruins, picturesque bays, rugged cliffs and mountains and amazing fossils. But for many visitors, it's the island’s remarkable collection of rare birds and animals, largely unaffected by human presence, that is the highlight.

The Maria Island Walk is a four-day walk that brings these remarkable wildlife stories to life through expert interpretative guides, with guests able to enjoy gentle walks by day and elegant accommodation and gourmet dining by night. As a vital location for numerous threatened and endangered species, Maria provides the opportunity to spot Common Wombats, Cape Barren Geese, Forester Kangaroos, Bennett’s Wallabies, Tasmanian Devils and 125 species of birds; including all of Tasmania’s endemics such as Tasmanian Native Hens, Green Rosellas, Yellow Wattlebirds, Black-headed & Yellow-throated Honeyeaters, Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagled and the endangered Forty-spotted Pardalote. In the warmer months, the island’s Blue Gums are a key habitat for the critically endangered Swift Parrot.

Wildlife Coast Cruises, Victoria

The Phillip Island and Wilson’s Promontory area provides a blend of spectacular coastal scenery, abundant marine wildlife, beautiful coastal heathlands and important seabird rookeries. The team at Wildlife Coast Cruises has been educating guests about the region’s marine diversity for almost 25 years, with an onboard marine biologist providing fascinating insights into the interaction of species across this unique ecosystem.

Highlights include close observation of Australia’s largest population of Australian Fur Seals (7,000+) off the aptly named Seal Rocks, spotting Common and Bottlenose Dolphins and tracking seabirds including Pied and Black-faced Cormorants, Australasian Gannets, Shy Albatross, Crested Terns and Pacific Gulls. This is also the area to witness parades of Little Penguins as they come ashore in the evening time. Phillip Island plays host to majestic whales during their annual migration every winter from June to August, with Humpback Whales most commonly spotted, but Southern Right Whales and Orcas also opportunistic sightings.


Australian Wildlife Journeys : Part I

Australian Wildlife Journeys is a new group of Australia’s leading, independently-owned wildlife tourism experiences, showcasing authentic wildlife encounters within natural habitats, combined with premium hospitality. A high level of guiding expertise and focus on interpretation that connects with guests, encourages self-reflection and aligns with local community values underpins the group.

Australia boasts a truly remarkable wildlife story, being home to the world’s most bio-diverse waters, the highest number of endemic bird species, the highest number of reptile species and a vast collection of mammals that can’t be seen anywhere else on earth. The Australian Wildlife Journeys group is passionate about enhancing the profile of Australia as a world-class wildlife destination and increasing wildlife observation across natural environments.

All members of Australian Wildlife Journeys are united by the vision to bridge the gap between the conservation and tourism sectors. The group has started assembling a portfolio of programs, that allow guests to actively contribute to the re-generation of local ecosystems and assist in preserving Australia’s incredible natural assets.

A wide array of Australia’s iconic marine and terrestrial landscapes are represented across the group, from coral reefs, coastal and alpine eucalypt woodlands, wet and dry rainforests, wetlands to desert sandplains.

The twelve founding members include Arkaba Conservancy (SA); Echidna Walkabout Nature Tours (VIC); Exceptional Kangaroo Island (SA); Exmouth Diving Centre (WA); Goin’ Off Safaris (SA); Lady Elliot Island (QLD); Lords Kakadu and Arnhemland Safaris (NT); The Maria Island Walk (TAS); Oz Whale Watching (NSW); Premier Travel Tasmania (TAS); SEIT Outback Australia (NT) and Wildlife Coast Cruises (VIC).

Arkaba, South Australia

Arkaba is nestled amongst the ancient outback landscapes of the Flinders Ranges, famed for its beautifully sculpted ridges, spectacular deep gorges, and striking river red gum creek lines. The former sheep station was developed into a 60,000 acre wildlife conservancy in 2013, to assist in the re-establishment of endangered endemic reptiles, birds and marsupials including the Yellow Footed Rock Wallaby, Western Quoll and Common Brushtail Possum. Arkaba boasts a luxurious 1850’s Homestead with just five guest rooms and offers a four-day immersive walk and safari drives with expert guides to showcase the various habitats across the conservancy.

Australian Ringneck Parrots - Flinders Ranges (Arkaba).jpg

It is one of the best locations in Australia to see Macropods, with the largest living marsupial, the Red Kangaroo, in very healthy populations, as are Western Grey Kangaroos and Common Wallaroos. Bearded Dragons, Painted Dragons, Barking Geckos, Shinglebacks and numerous skinks are noted reptile residents, with the birdlife also varied. The area offers year round sightings for Emus, Ringneck, Mulga, Red-rumped and Elegant Parrots, Wedge-tailed Eagles, Brown Goshawks, Black Kites, Rufous Whistlers, with migratory Rainbow Bee-eaters, Budgerigars and Zebra Finches delightful summer visitors.

Echidna Walkabout Nature Tours, Victoria

Connecting travelers with the diverse wildlife across the You Yangs, Great Ocean Road and East Gippsland has been the passion of Echidna Walkabout Nature Tours for over twenty years. A blend of magnificent lush rainforests, coastal heathlands, dramatic sea cliffs, giant alpine Eucalypt groves, pristine rivers, estuaries and vast grassy plains provides the opportunity to see a truly remarkable number of Australia’s iconic species.

In the You Yangs, guests will venture out with a Koala researcher to learn about the history and behaviour of individuals within the colony, with the opportunity to pull out invasive weeds to save this precious population. A rich array of marsupials including Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Swamp and Red-necked Wallabies, Short-beaked Echidnas and Common Wombats is in offer, with East Gippsland particularly attractive to travelers interested in shier forest dwellers, including Yellow-bellied and Greater Gliders, Lace Monitors, King Parrots, Eastern Whipbirds, Satin Bowerbirds, numerous honeyeaters the most famous songbird in Australia, the Superb Lyrebird.

Exceptional Kangaroo Island, South Australia

Kangaroo Island is Australia’s third largest island, with over one third of land declared as National or Conservation Park. Exceptional Kangaroo Island has been providing expert interpretation of the natural environment and numerous endemic species and local sub-species that inhabit this incredible sanctuary for over 25 years. Over 90% of the terrestrial wildlife habitat is mallee and woodland, dominated largely by Eucalyptus, with the balance shrubland, fernland and forest.

This provides opportunity to spot a vast range of animals including Kangaroo Island Kangaroos, Tammar Wallabies, Short-beaked Echidnas, Koalas, Rosenberg’s Goanna and 260 species of birds, with endangered Glossy Black Cockatoos, Hooded Plovers, Cape Barren Geese, Scarlet Robins, Southern Emu Wrens, Crimson Rosellas and Caspian Terns prime species for enthusiasts. The marine environment is equally diverse, with highlights including walking on a pristine beach with Australian Sea Lions at Seal Bay and spotting Long-nosed Fur Seals across the spectacular landscapes of Admiral’s Arch and Remarkable Rocks.

Exmouth Diving Centre, Western Australia

As the region’s original eco-tourism operation, Exmouth Diving Centre is synonymous with experiencing the aquatic treasures of the World Heritage Listed Ningaloo Reef Marine Park. Flanking the North West Cape coastline, Ningaloo Reef is one of the world’s largest and most magnificent fringing coral reefs. This intricate reef system stretches over 260 km (160 miles) and is renowned for its bio-diversity, with 250 species of corals, an assortment of uniquely colored nudibranchs and over 450 different species of fish.

The region is home to a myriad of marine megafauna, including the world’s largest fish, the Whale Shark, with visitors able to swim with these graceful creatures from March to August. Humpback Whales are also in abundance when the world’s largest migration occurs between May and November, with the recent addition of Humpback swims a highlight from August to November. Manta Rays, Dugongs and Turtles can be seen year round, with three species of turtle nesting over the summer months.

Goin’ Off Safaris, South Australia

The Eyre Peninsula is considered as Australia’s ultimate temperate aquatic playground, featuring striking coastlines, vast sand dunes, rugged offshore islands, secluded coves and picturesque coastal heathlands. Goin’ Off Safaris has been showcasing the region’s unique aquatic activities since 2005, including famed encounters with Australian Sea-lions, Bottlenose Dolphins and the oceans most formidable predator, the Great White Shark.

Experiences are not limited to the vast shoreline, with the region home to distinctive rock formations, a rich geological history and a variety of flora and fauna. The Southern Eyre Peninsula is home to 270 species of birds and 1900 native plant species, providing abundant opportunities to spot Western Grey Kangaroos, Emus, threatened Southern Hairy-nosed Wombats, Port Lincoln Parrots, Rock Parrots, Golden Whistlers, White-Browed Babblers, various waterfowl at Big Swamp and an array of seabirds including cormorants, terns oystercatchers, Black Winged Stilts, Osprey and White-bellied Sea Eagles.


Final Phase in next Blog.... 

Luxury Lodges Of Australia : South Australia

If an indulgent 'down-under' vacation is on any of your lists, then you’ll probably wish to include South Australia in your itinerary. 

In our last few blogs we’ve spoken about fabulous lodges in natural Australian settings, boasting majestic views and exclusive hospitality ... and as promised, this blog focuses on three such luxury lodges in South Australia. 


Luxury experiences can be truly delivered in the Australian outback!

Arkaba is a 60,000 acre South Australian outback property, that can truly deliver.

Located in the colorful landscapes of the Flinders Ranges and flanked by the awe-inspiring Chase Ranges and Rawnsley Bluff, Arkaba is probably one of the most splendid outback properties in Australia.

Just ten guests at a time have a unique opportunity to be immersed in guided wildlife safaris, and to enjoy relaxation in one of the finest Australian outback landscapes.

We recommend dining outdoors on the terrace at the end of the day ... enjoying the ever-changing colors and sounds of the bush ... and then indulging an after-dinner drink in front of the fire-pit just watching stars appear in the ancient outback 'big sky'.

Getting There: By Air: Private charters can take you from Adelaide to the closest airstrip, Hawker, in just over an hour.

You can also fly from Adelaide to Port Augusta and then take a 75 minute drive north to Arkaba.

By Car: You can take a splendid 4.5 hours drive from Adelaide. Stop at Quorn and the Pichi Richi Railway on your way north.

Things to Remember: The adventure-minded can also enjoy a memorable four day walking safari (along with camping-swags-under-the-stars) ex Arkaba.

The Louise

Located in the heart of an idyllic vineyard, with an acclaimed restaurant on-site, and breath-taking vistas of the world-renowned Barossa Valley is The Louise.

Inspired design, fabulous artwork, and luxurious suites (each with its own private terrace) cater to a maximum of just 15 guests.

With more than one hundred Barossa wineries to choose from, The Louise offers wine tastings beyond compare. Quite apart from fabulous wine experiences, you can enjoy hot air ballooning, cycling and hiking, and/or relaxing massages in the spa ... and, we recommend enjoying a Barossa Farmers’ Market Breakfast with the Kangaroos while staying at The Louise.

Make your very own blend at iconic Penfolds winery, or accompany 'Appelation' chefs on their farmer’s market visit and watch them securing the very best regional produce for the restaurant kitchen.

The Louise is all about enjoying simply outstanding food, spectacular wine, and fabulous accommodation in the very heart of one of Australia’s most respected wine regions.

Getting There: By Air : The Louise can arrange for helicopter transfers from Adelaide ... or to/from Southern Ocean Lodge.

By Car : The Barossa Valley is just over a one hour drive north of Adelaide.

Things to Remember: Leave your scales at home.

Southern Ocean Lodge

There's a very good reason that Kangaroo Island has been referred to as 'Australia's-zoo-without-fences'.

Set atop a secluded cliff on a rugged stretch of Kangaroo Island's south coast, commanding spectacular ocean views, and with nothing but open ocean for 2,000+ miles to the south, is Southern Ocean Lodge - a sensitively designed luxury lodge, recognized for its unique fusion of luxury and nature.

[Read Our Previous Blog On Luxury Lodges Of Australia : New South Wales ]

Southern Ocean Lodge offers just twenty one glass-walled suites each featuring bespoke furnishings, lavish sleeping areas, and a sunken outdoor lounge with spectacular Southern Ocean views.

This is certainly the place to fine dine on fabulous local produce, and enjoy spectacular guided touring of Australia's very own Galapagos.

Getting There: By Air: Kangaroo Island is just a 35 minute flight from Adelaide International Airport.

By Car/Ferry: It’s 90 minute drive from Adelaide to Port Jervis and then a 50-minute ferry across to Kangaroo Island.

Things to Remember: Take a camera!

Luxury Lodges Of Australia : New South Wales

When it comes to luxury, Australia, has numerous options to pamper. In our last few blogs we’ve been talking about hideaways within natural settings, boasting majestic views and exclusive hospitality. Our previous blog focused on luxury lodges located in Queensland.

This blog will discuss three luxury lodges in the state of New South Wales.

Capella Lodge

Located on world heritage listed Lord Howe Island is a pinnacle of luxury, Capella Lodge.  Overlooking romantic Lovers Bay and at the foot of dramatically rising twin mountains, Capella Lodge represents luxury at its best. A short flight will take you to this real deal ‘treasure island’, a sub-tropical paradise perfectly preserved in time. A feeling of relaxed sophistication flows throughout ... alluring guests to enjoy a civilized island escape.

Capella Lodge offers just nine contemporary island-style suites that compliment Lord Howe Island’s pristine natural environment. The design is inspired by an authentic Australian beach house ... and apart from the stunning view, the suites offer chic furnishings and generous decks.

You can take mountain walks, relax on white-sandy beaches, or explore a riot of colors in the southernmost part of the coral reef. Whatever you do, Capella Lodge makes sure that you can enjoy it lavishly ... but, on a first-name basis.

Experience fine dining showcasing a bounty of local seafood and fresh farm produce to help make your stay an unforgettable experience.

Getting There: By Air: Being a secluded gateway, Lord Howe Island has limited flights - with Qantaslink being the exclusive carrier to the island. Most flights operate from Sydney, with weekend flights out of Brisbane, and a seasonal flight ex Port Macquarie.

Things to Remember: All flights to Lord Howe Island only allow 30 lbs luggage per person ... mind you, that's all you'll need.

Pretty Beach House

If you're looking for an epitome of relaxed luxury that combines fabulous food, a perfect balance of intimacy, privacy and personalized service in the heart of NSW's Bouddi National Park, then it’s got to be Pretty Beach House. Experience effortless and unforgettable sanctuary in this stunning coastal luxury lodge limited to just eight guests at a time in four exclusive pavilions.

Surrounded by glorious golden beaches and picturesque bays, Pretty Beach House offers hiking expeditions and complimentary mountain bikes, an open bar, unlimited wi-fi throughout the property and a special indigenous smoking ceremony. All dining during your stay is included as part of the hospitality.

De-stress in the day spa, dine on a luxurious private boat with authentic seasonal menus and enjoy the quintessentially Australian coastal views. 

Getting There: By Air: From Sydney, Pretty Beach House can arrange helicopter transfers on request ... or you can take a stunning 30-minute seaplane transfer from Sydney's Rose Bay. Either way, take a camera!

By Ferry: Wagstaffe ferry service to Palm Beach is a favorite option to get to Pretty Beach House. If driving north from Sydney you can park at Palm Beach Wharf.

By Car: You can also reach there by car following the Pacific Highway less than two-hours north of Sydney.

Things to Remember: If traveling by ferry, car parking at Palm Beach Wharf can be a little difficult at peak times. 

Emirates One&Only Wolgan Valley

With a number of accolades and awards Emirates One&Only Wolgan Valley offers an ultimate experience of luxury and solace in its 7,000 acres property. The resort occupies just one percent of the property, featuring 40 individual suites, each with its own swimming pool. Its main homestead offers distinctive dining with fresh local produce and a Timeless Spa to re-energize.

[Our Previous Blog on Luxury Lodges Of Australia : Queensland]

Wolgan Valley is a carbon-neutral resort that has been recognized as an honoree of the Travel+Leisure Global Vision Awards for Sustainability and Conservation. It has also been awarded a coveted Banksia Award for heralding conservation based luxury in Australia. That’s not all. It's been named one of the 10 Best Luxury Hotels in the World, and recognized as one of the world’s most unique and stylish hotels and resorts by Mr & Mrs Smith. In fact, it’s the only Australian resort to make it to many top 10 lists. TripAdvisor’s 2016 Traveller’s Choice Awards named this ultra-luxury conservation resort as the #1 Hotel in Australia.

The seclusion of this place creates natural sanctuary where guests can experience breathtaking natural beauty and a haven of wildlife while soaking up the rich heritage of the region. You can spend your day enjoying a range of nature-based activities that include horse riding, wildlife spotting, four-wheel drives, nature walks, and interpretive tours.

Getting There: By Air: Emirates One&Only Wolgan Valley offers a dramatic 45 minutes helicopter transfer from Sydney offering superb views of the Blue Mountains en route.

By Car: There are several recommended scenic drives from Sydney to Wolgan Valley that take approximately three hours.

Things to Remember: The resort’s daily tariff includes gourmet breakfast, lunch and dinner ... and all non-alcoholic beverages.

In our next blog we’ll highlight luxury lodges in South Australia.

Luxury Lodges of Australia : Queensland

In our previous blog, we discussed 16 luxury lodges of Australia offering the opportunity to splash out on luxurious hospitality and sink your soul in complete otiosity. With more than 300 days of sunshine each year, it’s easy to see why Queensland is known as the ‘Sunshine State’. Discover endless golden beaches, exquisite coral reefs, tropical rain forests, palm fringed islands and hidden mountain retreats. As you can already guess, in this blog we will discuss the five luxury lodges of Queensland.

Crystalbrook Lodge

Crystalbrook Lodge is an unparalleled luxury destination where you can explore, indulge and relax in a setting unlike any other. Crystalbrook Lodge offers an exclusive, fully hosted experience for a maximum of 10 guests at a time in 5 courtyard suites.

Wake up to a gorgeous sunrise and a gourmet breakfast, and then spend your days fishing for iconic barramundi, kayaking, or exploring the property trails on foot or bike. In the afternoon, indulge yourself in the magna pool with craft beer in hand, and end your night by the campfire, sipping cocktails overlooking the serene manicured gardens.

Remember to Bring: Light casual clothing and suitable footwear for bush walking, and hats and sunscreen, and warm tops for cool winter evenings.

Getting There: By Air: You can reach there on charter flight or helicopter landing on Crystalbrook’s own airstrip or helipad.

By Car: Experience true outback living and lifestyle as you journey across unsealed roads. We recommend travelling with a 4WD vehicle 3 hours drive from Cairns or Port Douglas, and 2 hours from Mareeba.

By Train: The Savannahlander, departing every Wednesday 6.30am from Cairns, offers travelers a memorable way to explore Outback Far North Queensland.

Lizard Island

With 24 powdery white beaches and over 1000 hectares of national park, Lizard Island Beach Resort is truly secluded from the rest of the world. Uniquely located right on the Great Barrier Reef, this island resort offers some exclusive reef and water activities including snorkeling, in the coral gardens and secluded picnics on private beaches.

Important parts of the resort are The Essential Day Spa, The Pavilion, Salt Water Restaurant and Driftwood Bar & Wine Cellar. Indulge yourself in mouth-watering gourmet meals, non-motorised water sports and motorised dinghies, unlimited non-alcoholic beverages, in room mini-bar, picnic hampers, selected range of wines, beer and champagne and soul refreshing spa treatments.

Getting There: By Air: Regular flights are available from all major Australian cities with Qantas and Virgin. Private charters can also be arranged.

By Train: Two Tilt Trains and Three Sunlander departures from Brisbane to Cairns. From Cairns, you have to take a short 60 minutes flight to transfer to the main island.

Important to Remember: Lizard Island comes under world’s first Ecotourism Certification Program launched in 1996. Therefore, tourists are responsible for maintaining the island’s purity during their stay.


World-class luxury and an outstanding example of design is known as Qualia. Located on the northern-most tip of Hamilton Island and encircled by the splendid beauty of the Great Barrier Reef Qualia relaxes your mind and spoils your senses. Unwind at the stunning Spa Qualia that offers authentic Australian spa menu. There’s two serene pools, fitness center, library and private dining rooms exclusive for in-house guests. Guests also enjoy priority access to Australia’s only island championship golf course, the Hamilton Island Golf Club. It has a gorgeous 360-degree view of the Whitsunday Islands, Whitehaven Beach and the Great Barrier Reef. With choices of sixty private individual pavilions with plunge pools and outdoor showers, Qualia welcomes you to divine relaxation.

Getting There: By Air: Qualia is easily accessible with daily flights from Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane or Cairns. Private helicopter transfers are also available.

By Ferry: You can also enjoy regular ferry transfers to Hamilton Island from Airlie Beach.

Special Mention: If you visit Qualia during August, you can participate in the Audi Hamilton Island Race Week. It’s a perfect week-long yachting event for friends and family.

Silky Oaks Lodge

Silky Oaks Lodge offers luxury boutique accommodation nestled in Kuku Yalangi country, sitting high above the crystal-clear waters of the Mossman River and enveloped by the lush Daintree Rainforest veiling the steep mountain sides from the riverbanks.

You’ll be spoiled for options to explore the surrounding region with extensive hiking trails, canoeing, river snorkelling, goanna spotting or early morning yoga classes followed by a swim in the river. Its awarded spa offers 7 treatment rooms including Vichy showers and Sodashi massages. You can also journey to the remote Cape Tribulation in guided safaris and learn about the ancient refugial rainforest marvelling at the diverse flora and birdlife.

Getting There: By Air: 20 minutes helicopter transfer from Cairns Airport to the Silky Oaks Helipad is available for your convenience.

By Car: You can hire third party shuttles or drive yourself to the lodge from Cairns airport. Silky Oaks also offers private limousine transfer from Cairns Airport.

Special Mention: At Silky Oaks, you can enjoy sightings of saltwater crocodiles and extraordinary bird-life under the guidance of local representative of Birds of Australia, Del Richards.

Spicers Peak Lodge

Experience the height of luxury in this eclectic mix of contemporary and classic designed Luxury Lodge Spicers Peak. It’s Australia’s highest non-alpine lodge retreat, just 2 hours from Brisbane. With ten luxurious suites and two private lodges, Spicers Peak Lodge offers divine relaxation amidst stunning natural environment.

[Read Our Previous Blog :

Wollongong Tour - A Weekend In Wollongong 

by Guest blogger: Olivia Bourke]

You can enjoy range of tailored experiences that showcase the strikingly pristine landscapes with guided nature walks, mountain bike adventures, 4WD discovery tours, yoga, nocturnal walks and local history presentation. Spicers Peak also offers a 4-day guided trek from March to October. The property is renowned for bird watching that includes rare glossy black cockatoo, bushy tail rock wallaby along with kangaroos, dingo and koala. Perched atop a mountain on 9,000 acres, enveloped by the World Heritage listed Main Range National Park and the Great Dividing Range, Spicers Peak Lodge offers luxurious wilderness experience like no other.

Getting There: By Air: Daily flights are available from all major cities of Australia. The lodge operates a helicopter transfer which should be requested at the time of booking.

By Car: Spicers Peak Lodge is 2 hours driving from Brisbane Airport and two and half hours from Gold Coast Airport.

Things to Remember: All visits to Spicers Peak Lodge are by appointment and reservation only. Even if you want a helicopter transfer from airport to the lodge, it should be requested at the time of reservation. However, the helipad is certified for daylight operation only. Also, have the pilot call the reception desk five minutes before arrival for luggage assistance.

These are the five Luxury Lodges serving successfully in Queensland region. In our next blog, we’ll discuss about the luxury lodges located in New South Wales region.

A Weekend In Wollongong

Guest blogger: Olivia Bourke (

The South Coast of New South Wales is considerably underrated when it comes to weekend getaways. Great beaches, extraordinary national parks and lots of wildlife, this makes for the perfect way to escape the city lifestyle.

Also known as the gateway to the South Coast located just south of Sydney, Wollongong is the perfect place for a weekend away.

Saturday | 9 am

If you are traveling to Wollongong from Sydney you absolutely must go via the Grand Pacific Drive, a spectacular route following the coastline through the Royal National Park.

Once you arrive in Wollongong it’s the perfect time to grab some breakfast. We all know that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, so you want to make sure you grab something delicious ahead of your big day exploring all that Wollongong has to offer.

Head down to The Green Room City Beach cafe for a delicious beach side breakfast. Located along South Beach, you’ll be able to sip your coffee whilst listening to the waves crash on the shore.

There are plenty of options in terms of breakfast, a little something for everyone but I highly recommend getting your lips around their famous bacon and egg roll. This breakfast delight is made up of two eggs, bacon, tomato, chili jam, cheese and rouquette - a must for all burger lovers.

Saturday  |  11 am

After you’ve indulged in breakfast with a view, head to the Wollongong Art Gallery for a culture fix. The leading regional art gallery has many different exhibits, and a constantly changing events calendar for plenty to see and do.

Spend an hour or two admiring the permanent art collection of Aboriginal, Asian, colonial and Contemporary artworks and learning about the history of the area.

Saturday  | 1 pm

Next up you’re heading to the largest Buddhist temple in the Southern Hemisphere, Nan Tien Temple. You can just simply visit for a couple of hours, or you can choose to stay here for the duration of your trip at Pilgrim Lodge.

At Nan Tien Temple there is plenty to see and do, so make sure you plan your time here. I would recommend staying for at least two or three hours. Your afternoon will be filled with grand architecture, culture, art and many different exhibits that explore Buddhist festivals, vegetarian and vegan food options, health and lifestyle retreats and educational classes.

Check out the Dew Drop Inn for lunch and grab one of the delicious vegan options. There’s lots to taste, but apparently one of the most popular dishes is the veggie mince and ham noodle soup. Perfect to warm you up during the winter months.

Saturday | 7 pm

You’ve worked up an appetite after a big day of playing tourist, so it’s time to sit back, relax and enjoy some great food. It’s a Saturday night so there’s a lot happening in and around Wollongong.

If you are after some fine dining then look no further than Caveau. The Sydney Morning Herald Food Guide has awarded this popular South Coast restaurant with a ‘hat’ and has continued to do so every year since 2005.

Mixing French culinary techniques with local produce, the staff at Caveau aim to provide quality fine dining in a relaxed atmosphere at reasonable prices. It’s highly recommended that you try the seven-course degustation menu, that way you can sample multiple dishes in one sitting.

Sunday | 9 am

This morning you are heading just out of the city in order to devour yet another great meal on your weekend away at The Shack Cafe Thirroul. Whether you're interested in a green smoothie or a black coffee, The Shack Cafe has something to fulfill everyone’s morning routine.

If you decide to bring the kids along, there is a little something to satisfy their sweet tooth. Grab them the waffles with homemade berry coulis and cream or a milkshake to get them on board.

It is Sunday, so you might have spent the morning rugged up under the covers and that's okay! Luckily for you, you can grab a muesli and yoghurt to go with your take away coffee from The Shack Cafe!

Sunday | 11 am

If you’re feeling a little sluggish after all that food then perhaps a little physical activity will get you going. Make your way to the Illawarra Fly Treetop Adventures to have a fun and exciting morning at one of Australia’s best treetop walk and zipline experiences.

You’ll need a little over 2 hours here to completely immerse yourself in all it has to offer. With great views, a visitors centre, a cafe and guided tours, this could be perfect for the whole family.

Experience the 1.5 km return walk that includes a steel walkway, swaying cantilevered arms and a central tower, all 50 metres above the ground. From here you’ll able to see the most spectacular views.

Sunday |  3 pm

All that ziplining and adventuring amongst the trees must have got you a little thirsty. Not to worry the next stop is the Illawarra Brewery, a bar and grill opposite Wollongong’s City Beach perfect for winding down after a big weekend.

As the name suggests, the brewery offers a large selection of hand crafted beers, most of them brewed locally. So take a seat outside or inside depending on the weather, relax and get taste testing.

After a couple of local beers, grab a bite to eat from the grill. This family friendly venue has plenty to choose from, specializing in modern Australian cuisine. There is a menu full of all time favorites, you’ll find the perfect meal to sit and enjoy the last few moments of your weekend.


About The Author

I'm Olivia, an adventurous traveler who just wants to explore all the world has to offer. I'm an American who has slowly made my way to the beautiful land down under, Australia and I'm loving every minute of exploring this ever so scenic country, one state at a time. With my feet moving and my fingers typing, I love sharing all the gems that I discover with the world (, so they can enjoy them as well!

Luxury Lodges of Australia : An Introduction

Travel to Australia is about more than just the natural beauty of the country. It’s not just the cosmopolitan cities, white beaches, mountains, ancient rainforests and ochre-red outback, but as an integral part of the trip, Australia also excels in the quality of hospitality.

Traveling down under can create an intense connection with the surroundings ... and with your soul.

If it’s about relaxation in high-end accommodations with exquisite food and wine you're all over, then Luxury Lodges of Australia, can fulfill ALL of your expectations as here the priority is always you. 

The portfolio comprises a collection of nineteen top-tier lodges as diverse as the country itself. Located in premium locations, these environmentally-sensitive lodges with spectacular backdrops can be found throughout the length and breadth of the Aussie map, and all come with a commitment to five-star experience.

Most of the lodges are easily reached from major Australian cities, making them a 'must consider' inclusion into a wider holiday itinerary. 

New South Wales alone possess three exciting options. Less than three hours by road from Sydney is the Emirates One&Only Wolgan Valley, sitting beneath soaring cliffs and two national parks.

Even closer to Sydney is the serene Pretty Beach House, a spa retreat with sublime food and offering just four exclusive pavilions – best reached by seaplane. Even more dramatically situated is Capella Lodge, on Lord Howe Island.

For visitors to Victoria, there’s the prospect of spending time at the secluded Lake House - a multi-award-winning property on the shores of Lake Daylesford.

The choices continue in South Australia with Southern Ocean Lodge that combines a show-stopping location on Kangaroo Island with twenty one ocean-view luxury suites and guided wildlife touring options – not to mention a first-rate selection of wines.

Moving back to the mainland is The Louise, a gorgeous design-hotel and spectacular restaurant in the heart of the world-famous Barossa Valley wine region, and an outback resort, the ultra-exclusive Arkaba with 10,000 hectares of land in the Flinders Ranges. However, it welcomes only ten guests at one time.

Queensland has no less than five lodges in the portfolio. The Sunshine State is home to tropical island retreats Qualia and Lizard Island, both set right on the Great Barrier Reef.

Meanwhile, the mainland offers Silky Oaks Lodge, with high-end tree-house accommodation right in the Daintree Rainforest, the lavish Crystalbrook Lodge, perched over a lake, and Spicers Peak Lodge, a mountain getaway set in 8,000 acres of private conservation land in Main Range National Park.

[Read Our Previous Blog on The Great Alpine Road Drive : Leg 2]

Equally jaw-dropping are the lodge options in Western Australia. Closest to Perth is Cape Lodge, a country estate in the Margaret River region, while further north, close to the Ningaloo Reef, Sal Salis is a deluxe ecotourism bush camp with just sixteen wilderness tents.

Make your way further north to the Kimberley Region, and set in untamed wilderness is a five-star clifftop homestead, El Questro, while a unique 18-cabin adventure cruise ship True North will take you to sail the rivers and gorges of the NW coastline in serious style.

With any of Luxury Lodges of Australia's properties, you’re certainly guaranteed an Aussie experience to be cherished for the rest of your life.

We’ll be discussing more details about these nineteen Luxury Lodges of Australia in subsequent blogs.


The Great Alpine Road Trip - A Few Things to Do: Leg 2

We talked about the first leg (The Great Alpine Road Drive : Leg 1) of this great road trip in our previous blog. In this blog, you’ll discover more of the Great Alpine Road, waiting to surprise you in the most pleasant way.

The name of this spectacular road trip actually comes from this second leg that travels from leafy Bright straight towards the alpine area and the historic town of Omeo.

Leg Two :- The Great Alpine Road

Bright to Omeo

Time to go upwards

Pull yourself from colors of Bright and ascend along the Great Alpine Road that’ll take you to the charming Harrietville and Mount Hotham. As you head upward the landscape changes from alpine ash to snow gum forest and heathland.

Mount Hotham is Victoria's highest alpine village offering 500 acres of ski area. It offers a wide selection of downhill and cross-country trails perfect for beginners as well as experienced skiers and snowboarders.

On Mount Hotham, you can trek along fields of wildflowers, or go horse riding, or fishing. Take in the spectacular views of Mount Feathertop, (the second-highest mountain in the state), over the Alpine National Park. On a clear day you can see as far as Falls Creek and Mount Buffalo. Follow the Razorback Trail, to take you along the exposed ridges that leads to the summit of Mount Feathertop.

Less than 10-miles south of Mount Hotham is the Dinner Plain which is a popular center for horseback trail rides in summer, and cross-country skiing in winter.

What goes up must come down.

As the landscape changes from alpine ash to lush grazing fields, you know it’s time to descend to the old gold town of Omeo. Once the site of one of Victoria's richest goldfields, Omeo will quickly win you over with vistas of snowy mountains over green fields.

Omeo to Metung

Travel temptations

Go further south following the Great Alpine Road to small towns of Swifts Creek and Ensay, with a contemporary passion for freshly baked goods, just-picked fruit, and local wines, and then onto Bairnsdale.

Now it’s time to explore the spectacular Gippsland Lakes.

Past Bairsnsdale drive towards Metung, a starting point for exploring the Gippsland Lakes.

Next is Bruthen, a small rustic village overlooking the Tambo River with its very own brewery ... be sure to get refreshed by an energizing ale before you leave to explore any further. Departing from Bruthen, drive towards NowaNowa and Lakes Entrance and watch the daily catch being unloaded ... or cast a line yourself.

Lively Bairnsdale

Bairnsdale would be your last stop before Metung. It has everything that you need to sustain you for some time. On the banks of the Mitchell River, Bairnsdale was originally settled as an inland port.

In Bairnsdale you can attend a musical and sporting event, or enhance your hunger for further exploration of the impressive Gippsland Lakes network by roving the Mitchell River silt jetties that extend five miles into nearby Lake King.

Explore the Majestic Lakes

The Gippsland Lakes system happens to be the biggest expanse of inland waterways in the southern hemisphere. With five main lakes, fed by the waters of four major rivers, and with over 400 square kilometres of lakesand lagoons have made this region an ideal location for all forms of water based fun and sport, and an exceptional fishing spot.

With that you're off to Metung, a picturesque village on the shores of Bancroft Bay and Lake King. The Great Alpine Road trip ends in Metung. Check out the harborside restaurants that serve fabulous local seafood and wine, spend a day in a relaxed pace by floating around in a boat or take a stroll along the water's edge admiring the sunset.

Side trips

Alternate route from Bright

An alternative route turns off at Bright and continues to the Tawonga Gap, Mt Beauty, Bogong, Falls Creek and across the Bogong High Plains, then joins to Anglers Rest and Omeo. This road remains closed in winter. This road will amaze you with breath-taking views of historic cattleman’s huts, before connecting with the Omeo Highway to descend into Omeo.

[Read Our Previous Blog on The Great Alpine Road Drive : Leg 1]

Bogong Alpine Way

Bogong High Plains Road loops through Bright, Mount Beauty, Bogong, Falls Creek, Dinner Plain and Mount Hotham and back to Bright. This loop drive can amaze you with scenery like nothing else. We can bet that you’ll spend the rest of your life admiring every single sight from this loop drive.

Buchan Caves Reserve worth a stop

From Bruthen a scenic 20-minute drive takes you to Buchan, the gateway to the Buchan Caves Reserve that offers camping, bushwalking and wildlife spotting. Inside the caves you’ll find spectacular limestone formations. Guided tours take you for an easy walk through these ancient caverns, exploring beautiful calcite-rimmed pools. On a hot summer take a plunge in the underground, spring fed Buchan Caves Reserve pool, with the purest water you can imagine.

Take a Detour to Cassillis

An alternative route from Omeo to Bairnsdale is through Cassillis, a small town that was once a thriving mining community. Explore the picturesque valley on foot and see relics of the gold-mining era, including the unmissable Oriental Claims walking trails, the Cassilis Cemetery and the old goldmine.